Reasons Why Rizal Hate UST
1. Filipino Students are racially discriminated
2. Dominican Friars are hostile to him
3. The educational system are obsolete and repressive

Chapter XIII (The Class in Physics)- part of Fili that illustrate how Filipino students are discriminated as in the case of Placido Penitente

After finishing the 4th year medical course in UST, Rizal decided to go abroad to fulfill his secret mission.

Secret Mission:
To observed keenly the life & culture, Language & customs, industries & commerce, & government & laws of European nation in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from the Spanish tyrants.
People Who Know About the Plan Departure of Rizal...
1. Lucia. Neneng, Paciano
2. Mateo Evangelista. Jose maria cecilio "Chenggoy", Pedro Paterno
. Antonio Rivera, valenzuela Family, Jesuit Fathers
Jose Mercado- a cousin from Biňan
-identity used by Rizal to maintain the secrecy of his departure.

May3, 1882- Rizal departed Phil. w/ the 356 php & boarded on a ship
Salvadora w/ 16 Passengers. Saturnina gave him ring to be pawn in cases ha needed money.

May 9,1882- Rizal reached Singapore. He observe has flourishing culture &
Trade. In Singapore, he stayed at de la Paz Hotel.

May 11,1882- he boarded in Djenmah from Singapore

May 17, 1882- reached Ceylon(Sri-Lanka)- he has an impression that the

Place is lonely, quiet & sad. From Colombo, the next stopover of
Rizal is in Suez Canal ( made by Ferdinand de Lesseps).

Rizal landed in Italy & visited Mt. Vesuvius & Castle of Selmo. Then, he went to Marseilles, France where he visited the Chateau d’if & finally proceed to Barcelona.

June 16, 1882- Rizal arrived in Barcelona, the 2nd largest city of Spain.

Rizal has bad impression of Barcelona because he happened to stay on the most ugly side of the City. Later, he changes his perception about the city & come to like the city due to its freer & liberal environment.
Las Ramblas St.- most famous street in Barcelona where Rizal enjoy
Plaza de Cataluňa- Rizal was given party by his former classmates in Ateneo
Rizal noticed that the Filipinos in Spain are extravagant & vicious.Amor Propio- an essay written by Rizal in Barcelona. He send it to Teodoro Moran & published in Diariong Tagalog, the 1st bilingual newspaper in Manila. The Publisher was so impressed that he urged Rizal to write another article. Rizal wrote another article entitled Los Viajes.

Bad News Receive by Rizal In Barcelona
Cholera that ravage Manila & cuase the death of his brother-in-law
Leonor Rivera becomes thinner & thinner due to the absence of Rizal.

Rizal Decided to transfer in Madrid due to ff.
To heed the advice of Paciano
To take medical course in the capital of Spain
Madrid is the political, economic, cultural, & social center of Spain
Rizal enrolled two courses in Universidad Central de Madrid
Medicine Philosophy & Letters
*Rizal also studied painting/ sculpture in Academy of Fine Arts of San
Fernando. & took private lessons in French, German, & English.
*He also practice Fencing & shooting in Hall of Arms of Sanz Y Carbonnell. In Phil. Rizal learned fencing from his Tio Manuel.

Rizal lived a Spartan life in Madrid. He is frugal in spending his money. He never wasted his money on gambling, wine, & woman like the other Filipino in Madrid but he got addicted in lottery. He spend most of his time in reading, writing & reunion w/ other Fiipino in the house of Paterno brothers.

Romance w/ Conzuelo
Conzuelo- is the daughter of Don Pablo Ortiga Y Perez, former Mayor of Manila. She was fascinated of Rizal’s splendid talent & noble character.

Rizal made a poem for her entitled “ A La Seňorita C.O. y P. but
Before their closeness blossom into love, he back out for two reasons:
1. He was still engage to Leonor Rivera
2. Eduardo de Lete was madly in love w/ Conzuelo.

1882- Rizal joined the Circulo-Hispano Filipino, a society of Spaniards &
Filipinos in Madrid:
1. Pedro Alejandro Paterno
2. Gregorio Sancianco-published in1881 Treaties on Phil. Progress, a
Collection of economic, political, & administrative studies.
3. Juan Luna- high seas pilot turn painter
4. Melecio Figueroa- engraver
5. Felix R. Hidalgo- paintor
6. Manuael Zaragoza

7. Esteban Villanueva
8. Graciano Lopez-Jaena-
9. Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Spolarium of Juan Luna-depicting fallen gladiator & Christians Virgins
Exposed to the Mobs of Hidalgo won in Paris Exhibition
Pedro Paterno- author of novel Ninay & Sampaguita
Juan Atayde-moving spirit of Circulo-Hispano Filipino

1883- for the 1st time Rizal visited the tourist spots in Paris & concluded that Paris is one of the most expensive cities of Europe.
Three Costliest Cities in the World
Paris, France New York, US Tokyo, Japan
*Rizal joined in Masonry in Europe. He enter in Lodge Acacia & later in lodge Solidaridad & become a master Mason in Nov. 15, 1890.
Spanish Liberals in Spain
Miguel Morayta- statesman, professor, historian, & writer.
Francisco Pi y Margal- journalist, statesman, & former President of short-lived Spanish republic. Emilio Junoy- Journalist & member of Spanish Cortes Juan Ruiz Zorilla- former parliamentarian
Financial Worries due to:
Cheap price of sugar in world market Failure of farm production due to locust
Nov. 20-22, 1884- Rizal was involved in demonstration in Spain.

*Rizal finished his degree of Licentiate in medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 21, 1884 but he was not awarded the diploma because:
He did not present his thesis He did not pay the corresponding pay
*Rizal also finished Philosophy & Letters & was awarded w/ degree of Licentiate in Philosophy & Letters by Universidad Central de Madrid w/ excellent rating
*Rizal went to Paris to specialized eye treatment
*In Berlin, Rizal top German Scientist like:
Dr. Feodor Jagor 3. Dr. Hans Meyer Dr. Adolf Meyer 4. Dr. Rudolf Virchow
*Rizal work as assistant of Louis de Weckert, leading ophthalmology in France.
*Rizal work under top German Opthamologist, Otto Becker

Feb. 3, 1886-Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, Germany
Dr. Karl Ullmer- a pastor who become good friend of Rizal
July 3, 1886- Rizal wrote his 1st letter to Blumentritt
Ferdinand Blumentritt-Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria
An Austrian ethnologist who are interested in Phil. languages
-become bestfriend of Rizal
Aritmetica- book given by Rizal to Blumentritt
-written by Rufino Baltazar Hernandez & publish in Spanish & English.
Aug. 14, 1886- Rizal arrived in Leipzig & able to know:
1.Prof. Friedrich Ratzel- famous German Historian
2.Dr. Hans Meyer-German anthropologist

In Europe Rizal met:
1. Adolf Meyer, the Director Of Anthropological &ethnographic Museum
2. Dr. Joest-German Geographer
3. Rudolf Virchow-German Anthropologist
4. Hans Virchow-Son of Rudolf; Prof. of Descriptive Anatomy
5. Karl Earnest Shweigger-famost German Opthalmologist
6. Feodor Jagor-German Scientest Traveller; Author of Travels in The Philippines that foretells the downfall of Spain &the coming of America

Reasons Why Rizal LOve Europe
1. Absence of Racial Prejudice
2. Rich scientific atmosphere
*Jagor & Meyer recommended Rizal to become member of Anthropological & ethnological Society.
*Virchow-invited Rizal to give lecture before the Ethnographic Society of Berlin.
Rizal Stayed Longer In Berlin
1. To published
his Noli
2. Associate w/ German Scientest
3. To Study further opthalmology
4. To observe the economic and political situation of Germany
5. To study science and other languages...

*Rizal took private lessons in Languages under Professor of French, Madame Lucie Cerdole.
*In his letter to Trinidad, Rizal has high regard & admiration to German Woman because they are serious, diligent, educated, &friendly.
Two German Culture That Greatly Fascinate Rizal
1. Chrismas Celebration
2. Self Introduct
ion of a Visitor in a party

Rizal’s darkest winter in Berlin (1886)
-he lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba
-he already pawn Saturnina’s ring
-He ate only once a day, & satisfy himself w/ bread & water or cheap soup.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin- written by Harriet Beecher
-portrays the pathetic condition of the unfortunate Negroes & the brutalities of the American slave owners.
-inspire Rizal to write novel that would depict the miseries of the Filipino under the Spaniards.

*During the reunion of Filipinos in 1884 at Paterno’s house, they plan to write novel but it was not materialized because almost all are interested to write about women.

*1884-he began writing the novel in Madrid, Paris & finally finished it in Germany.

Maximo Viola- lend Rizal money for the printing of he Noli

Elias & Salome- the deleted chapter of the Noli to minimize the printing Expenses.

-printing shop w/c charge 300 for the 2000 copies of Noli

*While observing the life of the people in Germany & searching for cheap printing press, Rizal was suspected as French spy
After the copies of the Noli released, Rizal sent coies to:
1. BLUMENTRITT 4. Mariano ponce
2. Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor 5. Felix R. Hidalgo
3. Lopez-Jaena
*As a signed of gratitude to Viola, he give the original copy of this work w/ an inscription: “ To my dear Friend, M. Viola, who first Read & Appreciate My work”

May 13, 1887- Rizal’s 1st meeting w/ Blumentritt
Rosa- Blumentritt’s wife
Blumentritt’s ChIldren were: Conrad, Dolores, & Fritz.
*For 11 months, Rizal learned to speak German.
* After visiting Blumentritt, he tour the whole Europe.
*After his travel in Europe & more than five years stay Rizal decided to went Home.
People Who Oppose Rizal's Plan of Going Home...
1. Paciano
2. Chenggoy
3. Silvestre Ubaldo-brother in Law

Reasons Why Rizal Wanted To Go Home
1. To inquire why Leonor Rivera remain silent
2. To operate his mother's eye

3. To serve his people who has been long oppressed by the Spaniards
4. To find out how the Noli affected the Spaniards

July 3, 1887- Rizal boarded on Djemnah going back to the Phil.
Aug. 5, 1887- arrived Manila
Aug. 8, 1887- Reached Calamba
Rizal’s accomplishment in Calamba;

1. Established a medical clinic
Donya Teodora- his 1st patient
Dr. Uliman- he was called as such because he came from Germany. In fact, he was suspected as spy of Rizal.
2. Open gymnasium for young folks where he introduced European sports such as gymnastics, fencing, & shooting to discourage them from gambling
3. Actively participate in town’s activity such as landscaping & translated German poem into Tagalog.

Gen, Emilio Terrero-called Rizal to Malacaňang due to his Noli
*Upon his visit to Manila, he visited his former teachers in Ateneo
Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez Fr. Jose Bech Fr. Faura- Prophecied that Rizal might lose his head because of the Noli
Terrero- was convinced & satisfied of Rizal’s explanation. He assigned guard for Rizal.
Jose Taviel De Andrade- young lieutenant who became guard & buddy of Rizal.
-come from a noble family & shared a lot of common traits w/ Rizal such as:
Being cultured Painting talent
A linguist who could speak English, Spanish, & French

Rizal’s powerful enemy who insist that his novel is subversive:
1. Msgr. Pedro Payo- archbishop of Manila
-He sent copy to the Board of Censor & the committee found out that the novel is:
a. heretic, impious, & scandalous in the religious orders
b. anti-patriotic & subversive to public order
c. injurious to the Spanish government.

*But Terrero knew that the Dominicans were bias against Rizal
2. Father Salvador Font-head of the Permanent Commission of Censorship that recommended that importation, reproduction, & Circulation of Noli is Absolutely prohibited.

*While Rizal was in Calamba, a genuine friendship blossom between him & Andrade. But the happy days of Rizal in Calamba was marred by:
1. Death of his older sister, Olympia
2. The groundless tales that circulated that he is a German spy, agent of Bismarck, witch, mason, protestant, and a sound beyond salvation.

Calamba’s Agrarian Trouble
*When the lands of the Dominican Friars in Calamba was investigated by the government, it was Rizal who urge the people to list their grievances.

*Rizal received various threats from his enemies. They even convince Terrero to deport Rizal. But the latter refused. However, he advised Rizal to leave because he could not guarantee Rizal’s safety.

Reasons Why Rizal Left Philippines
1. His presence in Calamba might jeopardized the safety of his relatives and friends
2. He could fight better in foreign country

Hymn to Labor- a poem written by Rizal before he left Calamba upon the Request of his friend from Lipa, Batangas.
-it stressed the importance of economy in the stability of the country.

Feb. 3, 1888-Rizal left for Hong Kong after 6 months stayed in Calamba
*He was welcome by Filipino expatriates in Hong Kong such as:
1. Jose Maria. Basa
2. Balbino Mauricio
3. Manuel Yriarte
Jose Sainz De Varanda- former secretary of Terrero who shadowed Rizal’s movement in Hong Kong.
-commission by the Spaniards to spy Rizal’s activity
*In Hong Kong, Rizal studied Chinese life, language, drama, & customes.

Japan-land of Cherry Blossoms
-Rizal stayed here for almost 1.5 years
-He stayed Japan for several reasons
1. He was enchanted by the natural beauty of Japan
2. He was fascinated by the different shrines of Japan
3. He was enchanted by the charming manner of Japan
4. He fall in love with Seiko-Usui

Feb. 28, 1888-arrived in Yokohama & stayed in Grand Hotel
Juan Perez Caballero-secretary of Spanish legation who invited Rizal to stay at Spanish Legation.
-he was instructed to monitor Rizal’s activity

Reason Why Rizal Stayed in Spanish Litigation
1. to economized
2. to show the Spaniards that he hide nothing

While in Japan, Rizal studied Japanese drama, arts, music, & judo. He loves everything about Japan except the popular mode of transportation by means of rickshaw drawn by men

Seiko-Usei=served as guide & tutor of Rizal in Japanese language
-a 23 yrs old Samurai daughter
-more than sweet*heart, she served as Rizal’s guide & interpreter but their happy moments was cut short due to his responsibility of redeeming his people against the tyrants.

April 13, 1888- Rizal bound for US boarding on Belgic

*Rizal’s happy interlude in Japan lasted for 45 days

*Due to Seiko-Usei’s great love for Rizal, she married only in 1897 to a British teacher in Tokyo, named Alfred Charlton & they got daughter named, Yukiro.
Tetcho Suehiro- fellow passenger of Rizal in Belgic
-become good friend & admirer of Rizal
-a fighting Japanese novelist & champion of human rights
April 28, 1888-Rizal for the first time saw America
*Rizal observed that the liberty for the Americans is only for the whites
-he was disappointed for the lack of racial equality in America.
*After visiting America, Rizal decide to proceed in London
Why Rizal Ztayed in London
1. To annotate Morga's work
2. London is the safest place to carry out his fight
3. To improve his knowledge in English language

Rizal's Various Activity in London
1. Engage various correspondence with Relatives and Friends
2.Annotate the work of Morga
3. Romance w/ Gertrude Becketts
4. Engage in Filipiniana study
5. Contributed various articles in Soli
Dr. Antonio M. Regidor- a lawyer exile in 1872
-Rizal stayed w/ them for several weeks
*In London, Rizal boarded w/ Beckett family
Gertrude, Gettie, Tottie- daughter of Beckett who has intimate relation w/ Rizal.
Reinhold Rost-librarian of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
-authority in Malayan Languages & customs

Bad News Received By Rizal From LOndon
1. Furious attack on Rizal's novel by Senator Salamanca, Vida,Wenceslao Retana & Pablo Feced
2. A friend of Rizal, Laureano Viado was imprison because a copy of Noli was recovered from his house.
3. Persecution of the Patriots who signed the anti-friar Petition
4. The exile of Manuel Hidalgo(brother-in-law) to Bohol
5.Persecution of Calamba tenant